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Demographic information on patient gender, age and primary diagnosis was collected for 99.84% of patients included in the study. Patients were assigned to the following categories based on UDT results and analysis:
Patients could have multiple types of abnormal results. Patients having at least one illicit drug present were further placed into one or more of the following categories:
All results were compared using chi-square statistics, where P values <0.001 were considered statistically significant.
A total of 938,586 urine toxicology tests from patients chronically treated with opiates and/or benzodiazepines were identified during the study period. The urine tests were obtained more often from female patients, with the bulk of patients falling into the 35- to 50-year-old age range. The majority of patients had a primary diagnosis of back pain or “therapeutic drug monitoring” (Table 1).